This is the Macintosh version of this document.

In a minute, you will start the task of a layout artist, while you have only just put away the tools of the designer. If necessary, reread the section in Part 4 on the differences and similarities between these tasks. Please remember that, if you encounter difficulties during this course, you may choose Help. This will bring up a search field which can help you find menu items and the applications own help system. If you need clarification on specific functions or terminology, you can also browse the list in the Index.

1. Mark up

Part 4 of this course points out the fact that traditionally there are a number of stages in between design and page layout, one of which is mark up. Simply put, mark up entails that the several structural items of a text are indicated as such on the original copy, so that the layout artist knows from the hard copy where to use which style specifications. Mark up is usually done by a copy editor, sometimes by a mark-up editor, but not by the DTP operator.

Nevertheless, you may want to mark up your own "copy" before you start your layout work. The idea is that you have a much better concept of text structure from a printout than from an imported text on a computer screen. You simply print out (having opened it in a wordprocessor) a copy of the wordprocessed document Publ.rtf, you identify the structural items (i.e. you read the text) and you mark them as such on paper. Note that the structural elements are all jumbled up; you need to identify them for what they are.

2. Placing text and graphics

The texts that you will use for the brochure have been placed on this website. You need the text-file Publ.rtf, and the graphic files zethaak.gif and letter.gif

click here to download the file "publ.rtf"

click here to download the file "zethaak.gif"

click here to download the file "letter.gif"

Before you start to place the text and graphics into InDesign, make sure that you are in layout mode and not working on the Master Pages. The effect of placing text and graphics while in template mode is that all pages of your publication will have the same text on them.

In Part 2, you have specified that your document should contain 3 pages. If you need more space, you can add pages to your document by going to the Pages palette and press the New Page icon below in that palette.

To delete a page, first select it in the lower half of the Pages palette and click the Trash icon in the bottom right of that same palette.


Placing text

The text which has to be placed is selected by means of the Place dialog box.

The Place dialogue box
  • Select Place under the File menu.
  • A dialog box appears which allows you to navigate to the file holding the text that you want to place. Remember that the text file is called publ.rtf. Click once on the filename.
  • Also look at the options below the menu: make sure the Show Import Options box is checked. This will open the Import Options dialog box which give you more control over what happens to the file you want to place. You might want to select Remove Styles and Formatting form Text and Tables. Preserving them can cause unexpected problems; you might find that a tab size is copied into the text from the wordprocessor, which can be hard or even impossible to remove. Also select the Use Typographer’s Quotes option. This means that straight quotes are turned into 66 and 99 doubles quotes or 6 and 9 single ones).
  • From the place dialog click Open or from the Import Options dialog box click the OK button.

The active tool will now turn into a loaded text icon: This changed cursor enables you to find a position in the document where you want the text to appear.

Manual and autoflow placing

There are two different ways in which you can place the story in your document:

  1. If you place the loaded text icon in your document and click, the text will pour out of the loaded cursor, but this flow will stop when the end of a page or the end of a column has been reached. If there is still more text to be placed, the Out-port at the bottom right of the text frame will indicate this by displaying a red plus sign. If you double-click on that red sign, the cursor will reload, enabling you to look for a new position where the rest of the story can be placed. This way of placing a story is called Manual-flow.
  2. The second way is called Auto-flow. If you have the loaded text icon, you can shift to Auto-flow placement by pressing the Shift key on the keyboard. Notice that the loaded text Icon changes. In Auto-flow mode, the flow of the text will not stop at the end of a page or of a column; it will continue until the end of the story.
Filling the pages with the story text

Which of the two icons/methods for placing is most efficient, depends on your design. This current design has two columns; one wide column for text, and one narrow column for graphics and captions. If you would use Auto-flow placement, InDesign places text in both columns, which we do not want. So instead, we opt for manual placement:

  • Having page 1 on your screen, put the loaded text icon carefully below the spot where guides 1 and 3 cross, in the left-hand corner in the wide column. Zoom in on the page if necessary.
  • click to place the text. If anything goes wrong during this procedure you can simply select Undo and start over again. Remember that you can also delete a selected text frame by pressing backspace
  • After the end of the column has been reached, click on the red arrow to fill the cursor with text. Turn to page 2 by clicking on the appropriate page icon in the Pages palette and place the rest of the story in the wider text column. Ignore guide 1, which is only used for the opening of a chapter.
  • Repeat this last instruction until the whole story is placed, and until you see an empty Out-port at the bottom right of the last frame. If you find that your document needs more pages, add them by using the New Page Icon in the Pages palette.
Placing graphics

In the Tools palette, you can see the Shape Tools button we discussed in Part 1. Near it is the Frame Tools button. Notice what happens if you click on one of these two buttons, keep the mouse button depressed, and slide the mouse to the right. It brings up a menu which allows you to switch between the different Shape/Frame Tools. The default shape for the Shape and Frame Tools is the rectangle. There are also ellipse and polygon tools. After selecting either the Polygon Tool or the Polygon Frame Tool double-click the corresponding button and a new menu will appear in which you can arrange the number of sides and the percentage of the inset. It allows you to draw star-like images.

With the Shape tool you can draw shapes that appear in the publication. You can use use the Frame Tool shown here on the right to create a frame. If you import graphics into a frame created with one of the Frame Tools, this will allow you to freely edit the shape of that graphic in your publication. For the current publication, we will use the Rectangle Frame Tool to import the images.

  • Turn to page 1 of your document and draw a frame in the narrow column, about halfway down the page.
  • Select the frame, using the Pointer tool.
  • With this selected Frame on screen, bring up the Place dialogue box by selecting File > Place.
  • Navigate to the file "letter.gif".
  • Click once on the filename
  • Click Choose
  • Click in the top left hand corner of the Frame to place the image

The image will automatically fill the frame that you have just drawn at one hundred percent of its scale. You can resize the frame and/or the image under Object > Fitting. If you select Fit image to Frame, your image is forced to fit the frame boundaries. If you choose Fit Frame to Content, the frame will be resized automatically so that it fits the image. Choose Fit Content Proportionally to fit the image to the image without distortion of the image (you can then select "Fit frame to content" to make frame and content of equal size).

  • Repeat the instructions given in this section for the file "zethaak.gif". Try to place the image in the narrow column on the lower half of page 3. Because of its width, this image may need a lot of resizing. Use the Pointer tool, or try some of the options under Object > Fitting.

3. Fitting text and graphics to the design

Your publication now contains all objects it needs to have. However, that does not mean that the publication is finished. As a next stage, you should give every object its proper place and the appearance that it should have according to the style sheets created earlier.

Note that it may be necessary to link or unlink text as the occasion demands. For example, headings are usually kept separate from (i.e. are not linked to) running text , since they may need to be manipulated separately.

Using the Style palette

The Paragraph Styles palette contains a style for each of the various structural items that occur in the document. To apply the appropriate style to the appropriate item, you simply select the item with the mouse, using the Type tool. Next, you select the style from the Styles Palette by clicking on it with the mouse cursor. If the Paragraph Style palette is not on your workbench, get it from the Type menu. In the following sections, you will apply the styles for Body text, Chapter heading, Subheading and Caption A.

  • Put the text cursor at any place in the body text.
  • Choose Select All in the Edit menu, or use shortcut: Cmd + A. The feature of threading text becomes clear here: Select All affects all text within the block(s) which together form one longer text, a story; if the text is in unthreaded frames, Select all will only affect each frame separately
  • Click Body Text in the Style palette;
  • Look at the result. All the styles in the Paragraph Styles Palette are paragraph-based and only affect text between hard returns. If you would not have selected the whole text, you would have needed to apply this style to every paragraph of the text separately.
  • Now select the course name "Van Kopij tot Boek" which should normally be on page 2. Select these words, using the Type tool. Click on the italic style in the Character Styles palette, and see the result. In order to see the difference between Character Styles and Paragraph Styles, choose Edit > Undo to undo the styling. From the Paragraph Styles palette, choose the caption style, and watch what happens. Even though you only selected a few words, the paragraph style is applied to the entire paragraph. However, if you apply a character style to a selected body of text, and then apply a paragraph style to the paragraph containing it, the paragraph style will not override, or cancel out, the character style.
  • Put the text cursor in the phrase "Publishing at APL"
  • Select Chapter heading in the Paragraph styles palette.
  • Put the text cursor in the word "Introduction"
  • Select Subheading
  • Next, unthread the caption at the top of the body text. Select the text "The Press Room is fully equipped for letterpress printing"
  • Cut it (Cmd + X) from the text
  • With the Type tool, draw a new text frame underneath the image that you have placed in the narrow column on page 1.
  • Put the text cursor (i.e. click with the mouse) into that new text frame.
  • Paste the caption (Cmd + V or Edit > Paste) in its correct place. The effect of cutting and pasting the caption is that the thread between the original frame and the pasted frame is broken. If necessary, the text frame containing the caption can be moved and resized with the Selection tool.
  • Next, give the caption its style specifications as laid down in the Style palette. Because the caption appears on a page based on the B-Master (you can see this in the Pages Palette) you need the style named Caption B from the Style palette.
  • Cut and Paste the second caption (the words "movable type held together in a galley" at the top of the body text") under the image on page 3 and also give it its appropriate style.

The idea of using the Style palette is that styles are applied throughout the publication as they were designed. If you make changes to these specifications in the actual publication, one of the main objectives of the Style palette, that of consistency, will be defeated. This is not to say that it is not sometimes useful to be able to make small adjustments to a style in the publication, but this results in a certain lack of neatness. The adjustment to the style is recorded in the Styles palettes by means of a small plus sign after the style in question; unless you remember precisely what you changed, this will be the only indication that the style used is not the true style as you originally designed it.

4. Some additional functions

Fitting text and graphics to the page

The work done at the layout stage may occasionally call for the assistance of an editor. During layout, a typical problem is that of fitting text and graphics to the page. Layout artist and editor have to make sure, for example, that page breaks do not occur at unsuitable places, such as in the middle of a table or just before the end or just after the beginning of a section or chapter (this cuts the first or last sentences of a section from the larger body of the text, causing so-called widows and orphans to occur isolated on the preceding or following page). Depending on the nature of the text, the choice may be to lose a line or otherwise rearrange the text, or the problem might have to be solved using typographical means, such as adjusting the spacing between the words and/or the letters. You do this by using functions which are named kerning and tracking.

This section contains information on a number of InDesign features which this course considers as advanced topics. As such they will not occur in the InDesign examination. These features are included here all the same, because they are relatively accessible and simple means to give your publication a more professional appearance. You will most certainly use them in the Publishing course when producing the publication for Academic Press Leiden. But do not feel discouraged if you do not fully master all these skills!

Typographical finetuning

Character paletteAll features described in this section can be found on the Character Palette. This Palette is always activated when you use the Type tool. Tracking and Kerning allow you to modify some InDesign's automatic word spacing. You may want to add space to obtain e m p h a s i s, or to reduce space to prevent the last word of a sentence, or the last sentence of a paragraph to occur on a new page (so-called widows/orphans). Sometimes InDesign's automatic spacing can result in visually odd spacing, especially in larger type sizes and in specific pairs of letters: VA, Wa, Ty, etc. Other features which will be discussed here are Scaling and Leading.

Tracking, or letterspacing, involves adding space between the characters of a word or a group of words. You can create negative tracking by entering a negative value in the field and therefore decreasing the amount of space in between the characters. Experiment with Tracking, for instance on the capitals "APL". Do not forget to select them with the text tool before modifying them, and to enlarge the view to see the results more clearly.

Kerning is the manipulation of letterspacing between two characters in a more detailed and controlled way. To kern, place the cursor between the two letters and enter or select a value in the field after the Kerning icon. A negative value brings the letters closer together; a positive value increases the distance.

Leading is the vertical measurement of space between the baseline and the baseline of the adjacent line. Leading is measured in points. To use it, simply select the text and enter a value.

Scaling can be done either horizontally or vertically. Both functions allow you to manipulate the distinct features of a given letterform.

Again, you use it by selecting a letter or a word and enter a positive or negative value in the field.

Applying a Text Wrap

In the Brochure that you have just made, you may have experienced some difficulty fitting the file zethaak.gif into the narrow column. In InDesign, you do not necessarily have to place the text and the images on separate sections of the page. By using a text-wrap, you can integrate images into the frames that contain text.
Use the following instructions:

  • Enlarge the image on page 3: select the image with the Pointer tool, click on one of the windowshades and drag it. While you resize the image, you may cross the boundaries of the column and cover part of the text in the wider column.
  • With the selected image on your screen, go to Window > Text Wrap to bring up the Text Wrap palette.
  • In the top row, you can see icons that represent the five ways in which text can be wrapped. In the section below the icons, you can also arrange the various distances between the image and the text. First select the wrap icon second from the left: This icon indicates that text will be wrapped around all boundaries of the image. Next, set all distances at 2 millimetre. You will notice another button that will automatically match all the measurements as we saw in Part 2 while setting up the margins for our document.
  • Return to your document to see the result. All the text that was first covered by the image is now wrapped around its frame.
  • Please realise that applying a text wrap will push text further down into the text frame. If you use an unthreaded text frame, it may not be able to contain all of the text. Check the Out-port on the bottom right of the last text frame to see if this is the case: Make sure that it does not display a red plus sign. (If it does, reread the section on threaded text frames in Part 1).
Working with Colours

Only a fraction of the many graphical possibilities available in InDesign can be discussed in this course. This short section will only instruct you how to create a coloured rectangle which you can use as a background box.

  • First, select the Rectangle Tool in the Tools palette and draw a rectangle. Select it with the pointer tool
  • Next, go to the Stroke and Fill box, below in the Tools palette. The setting of this box determines how colours will be applied. To fill an item with a colour, you need to bring the Fill icon up front (the closed square). You can switch from Stroke to Fill mode simply by clicking on the icon.

  • Activate the Swatches palette by selecting Window > Swatches. Notice that the Swatches tab appears in the same palette as the Paragraph and Characters Styles.
  • Use the scroll bar to browse through the list of colours. If you do not find a suitable colour, choose Window > Swatch Library. In the menu that pops up, you can choose and add more colours to the Swatches palette
  • If you doubleclick on the colour of your choice, the selected object in the document (your rectangle) will assume that same colour.
  • If you want to use the coloured rectangle as a background box, go to Object > Arrange > Send to Back. You are now free to move text frames and place them over the coloured rectangle

After you have sufficiently enhanced the appearance of the document by using some of the additional functions discussed in this section, you may consider the brochure finished.