In a minute, you will start the task of a layout artist, while you have only just put away the tools of the designer. If necessary, reread the section in Part 4 on the differences and similarities between these tasks. Please remember that, if you encounter difficulties during this course, you may choose Help. This will bring up a search field which can help you find menu items and the applications own help system. If you need clarification on specific functions or terminology, you can also browse the list in the Index.
Part 4 of this course points out the fact that traditionally there are a number of stages in between design and page layout, one of which is mark up. Simply put, mark up entails that the several structural items of a text are indicated as such on the original copy, so that the layout artist knows from the hard copy where to use which style specifications. Mark up is usually done by a copy editor, sometimes by a mark-up editor, but not by the DTP operator.
Nevertheless, you may want to mark up your own "copy" before you start your layout work. The idea is that you have a much better concept of text structure from a printout than from an imported text on a computer screen. You simply print out (having opened it in a wordprocessor) a copy of the wordprocessed document Publ.rtf, you identify the structural items (i.e. you read the text) and you mark them as such on paper. Note that the structural elements are all jumbled up; you need to identify them for what they are.
The texts that you will use for the brochure have been placed on this website. You need the text-file Publ.rtf, and the graphic files zethaak.gif and letter.gif
Before you start to place the text and graphics into InDesign, make sure that you are in layout mode and not working on the Master Pages. The effect of placing text and graphics while in template mode is that all pages of your publication will have the same text on them.
In Part 2, you have specified that your document should contain 3 pages. If you need more space, you can add pages to your document by going to the Pages palette and press the New Page icon below in that palette.
To delete a page, first select it in the lower half of the Pages palette and click the Trash icon in the bottom right of that same palette.
The text which has to be placed is selected by means of the Place dialog box.The Place dialogue box
The active tool will now turn into a loaded text icon: This changed cursor enables you to find a position in the document where you want the text to appear.Manual and autoflow placing There are two different ways in which you can place the story in your document:
Which of the two icons/methods for placing is most efficient, depends on your design. This current design has two columns; one wide column for text, and one narrow column for graphics and captions. If you would use Auto-flow placement, InDesign places text in both columns, which we do not want. So instead, we opt for manual placement:
In the Tools palette, you can see the Shape Tools button we discussed in Part 1. Near it is the Frame Tools button. Notice what happens if you click on one of these two buttons, keep the mouse button depressed, and slide the mouse to the right. It brings up a menu which allows you to switch between the different Shape/Frame Tools. The default shape for the Shape and Frame Tools is the rectangle. There are also ellipse and polygon tools. After selecting either the Polygon Tool or the Polygon Frame Tool double-click the corresponding button and a new menu will appear in which you can arrange the number of sides and the percentage of the inset. It allows you to draw star-like images.
With the Shape tool you can draw shapes that appear in the publication. You can use use the Frame Tool shown here on the right to create a frame. If you import graphics into a frame created with one of the Frame Tools, this will allow you to freely edit the shape of that graphic in your publication. For the current publication, we will use the Rectangle Frame Tool to import the images.
The image will automatically fill the frame that you have just drawn at one hundred percent of its scale. You can resize the frame and/or the image under Object > Fitting. If you select Fit image to Frame, your image is forced to fit the frame boundaries. If you choose Fit Frame to Content, the frame will be resized automatically so that it fits the image. Choose Fit Content Proportionally to fit the image to the image without distortion of the image (you can then select "Fit frame to content" to make frame and content of equal size).
Your publication now contains all objects it needs to have. However, that does not mean that the publication is finished. As a next stage, you should give every object its proper place and the appearance that it should have according to the style sheets created earlier.
Note that it may be necessary to link or unlink text as the occasion demands. For example, headings are usually kept separate from (i.e. are not linked to) running text , since they may need to be manipulated separately.
The Paragraph Styles palette contains a style for each of the various structural items that occur in the document. To apply the appropriate style to the appropriate item, you simply select the item with the mouse, using the Type tool. Next, you select the style from the Styles Palette by clicking on it with the mouse cursor. If the Paragraph Style palette is not on your workbench, get it from the Type menu. In the following sections, you will apply the styles for Body text, Chapter heading, Subheading and Caption A.
The idea of using the Style palette is that styles are applied throughout the publication as they were designed. If you make changes to these specifications in the actual publication, one of the main objectives of the Style palette, that of consistency, will be defeated. This is not to say that it is not sometimes useful to be able to make small adjustments to a style in the publication, but this results in a certain lack of neatness. The adjustment to the style is recorded in the Styles palettes by means of a small plus sign after the style in question; unless you remember precisely what you changed, this will be the only indication that the style used is not the true style as you originally designed it.
Fitting text and graphics to the page
The work done at the layout stage may occasionally call for the assistance of an editor. During layout, a typical problem is that of fitting text and graphics to the page. Layout artist and editor have to make sure, for example, that page breaks do not occur at unsuitable places, such as in the middle of a table or just before the end or just after the beginning of a section or chapter (this cuts the first or last sentences of a section from the larger body of the text, causing so-called widows and orphans to occur isolated on the preceding or following page). Depending on the nature of the text, the choice may be to lose a line or otherwise rearrange the text, or the problem might have to be solved using typographical means, such as adjusting the spacing between the words and/or the letters. You do this by using functions which are named kerning and tracking.
This section contains information on a number of InDesign features which this course considers as advanced topics. As such they will not occur in the InDesign examination. These features are included here all the same, because they are relatively accessible and simple means to give your publication a more professional appearance. You will most certainly use them in the Publishing course when producing the publication for Academic Press Leiden. But do not feel discouraged if you do not fully master all these skills!Typographical finetuning
All features described in this section can be found on the Character Palette. This Palette is always activated when you use the Type tool. Tracking and Kerning allow you to modify some InDesign's automatic word spacing. You may want to add space to obtain e m p h a s i s, or to reduce space to prevent the last word of a sentence, or the last sentence of a paragraph to occur on a new page (so-called widows/orphans). Sometimes InDesign's automatic spacing can result in visually odd spacing, especially in larger type sizes and in specific pairs of letters: VA, Wa, Ty, etc. Other features which will be discussed here are Scaling and Leading.
Tracking, or letterspacing, involves adding space between the characters of a word or a group of words. You can create negative tracking by entering a negative value in the field and therefore decreasing the amount of space in between the characters. Experiment with Tracking, for instance on the capitals "APL". Do not forget to select them with the text tool before modifying them, and to enlarge the view to see the results more clearly.
Kerning is the manipulation of letterspacing between two characters in a more detailed and controlled way. To kern, place the cursor between the two letters and enter or select a value in the field after the Kerning icon. A negative value brings the letters closer together; a positive value increases the distance.
Leading is the vertical measurement of space between the baseline and the baseline of the adjacent line. Leading is measured in points. To use it, simply select the text and enter a value.
Scaling can be done either horizontally or vertically. Both functions allow you to manipulate the distinct features of a given letterform.
Again, you use it by selecting a letter or a word and enter a positive or negative value in the field.
In the Brochure that you have just made, you may have experienced some difficulty fitting the file zethaak.gif into the narrow column. In InDesign, you do not necessarily have to place the text and the images on separate sections of the page. By using a text-wrap, you can integrate images into the frames that contain text.
Use the following instructions:
Only a fraction of the many graphical possibilities available in InDesign can be discussed in this course. This short section will only instruct you how to create a coloured rectangle which you can use as a background box.
After you have sufficiently enhanced the appearance of the document by using some of the additional functions discussed in this section, you may consider the brochure finished.